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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academy Award for Makeup
  2. Aloe
  3. Alpha hydroxy acid
  4. Anti-aging cream
  5. Arenation
  6. Aromatherapy
  7. Artistry
  8. Astringent
  9. Beauty
  10. Beauty mark
  11. Beauty salon
  12. Camouflage Cosmetic
  13. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  14. Carnauba wax
  15. Castor oil
  16. Chanel No. 5
  17. Chemical peel
  18. Christian Dior
  19. Clinique
  20. Concealer
  21. Corpse paint
  22. Cosmeceutical
  23. Cosmetic advertising
  24. Cosmetics
  25. Cosmetology
  26. Creed
  27. Dermabrasion
  28. Dermatology
  29. Destination spa
  30. Eau de cologne
  31. Electrology
  32. Elizabeth Arden
  33. Essential oil
  34. Estée Lauder
  35. Estée Lauder Companies
  36. Estée Lauder pleasures
  37. Exfoliation
  38. Eye liner
  39. Eyeshadow
  40. Facial toning
  41. Glitter
  42. Glycerol
  43. Guerlain
  44. Hair
  45. Hair extension
  46. Helena Rubinstein
  47. Hermès
  48. History of cosmetics
  49. History of Perfume
  50. Hot tub
  51. INCI
  52. Jojoba oil
  53. Kohl
  54. Lancome
  55. Lip gloss
  56. Lip plumper
  57. Lipstick
  58. List of cosmetic ingredients
  59. L'Oréal
  60. Makeover
  61. Make-up artist
  62. Manicure
  63. Mascara
  64. Max Factor
  65. Max Factor, Sr.
  66. Maybelline
  67. Microdermabrasion
  68. Nail polish
  69. Natural skin care
  70. Noxzema
  71. Olay
  72. Pedicure
  73. Perfume
  74. Perfume bottles
  75. Permanent makeup
  76. Permanent wave
  77. Plastic surgeons
  78. Retinol
  79. Revlon
  80. Rimmel
  81. Rouge
  82. Shampoo
  83. Shaving
  84. Shaving cream
  85. Shea butter
  86. Shiseido
  87. Shower gel
  88. Skin Deep
  89. Skin whitening
  90. Soap
  91. Sunless tanning
  92. Sun tanning
  93. Surfactant
  94. Talcum powder
  95. Tanning bed
  96. Tanning lamp
  97. Thanaka
  98. The Body Shop
  99. Waxing
  100. Wella
  101. What Not to Wear

 

 



COSMETICS
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmetics

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

Cosmetics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 
Assorted cosmetics and tools
Assorted cosmetics and tools

Cosmetics (pronunciation: cosmetic ) are substances used to enhance or protect the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, hair colors, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up", which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user’s appearance. The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. FDA defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes, as well, any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category. (http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1998/398_cosm.html)

History

Main article: History of cosmetics

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egypt around 4000 BC. The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics. The Romans and Ancient Egyptians used cosmetics containing mercury and often lead.

In the western world, the advent of cosmetics was in the middle ages, although typically restricted to use within the upper classes.

Cosmetic use was frowned upon at some points in history. For example, in the 1800s, Queen Victoria publicly declared makeup improper. It was viewed as vulgar and acceptable only for use by actors.

By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were in widespread use in nearly all societies around the world.

The cosmetics industry today

The cosmetics industry is a multinational, multi-billion-dollar industry. Of the major firms, the oldest and the largest is L'Oréal, which was founded by Eugene Schueller in 1909 as the French Harmless Hair Colouring Company (now owned by Liliane Bettencourt 27.5% and Nestlé 26.4%, with the remaining 46.1% are publicly traded). The market was developed in the USA during the 1910s by Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II and Estée Lauder just after.

Controversy

The popularity of cosmetics in the 20th century has increased rapidly. Especially in the United States, cosmetics are being used by teens (especially teen girls) at a younger and younger age. Many companies have catered to this expanding market by introducing more flavored lipsticks and glosses, cosmetics packaged in glittery, sparkly packaging and marketing and advertising using girls. The social consequences of younger and younger beautification has had much attention in the media over the last years (see Developmental psychology).

Types of cosmetic

The various forms of makeup include:

  • Lipstick, lip gloss, lip liner, lip plumpers.
  • Foundation, used to color the face and conceal flaws to produce an impression of health and youth. Usually a liquid, cream or powder.
  • Powder, used to set the foundation, giving a matte finish.
  • Rouge, blush or blusher, used to color the cheeks and emphasize the cheekbones. This comes in powder, cream and gel forms.
  • Bronzer, used to create a more tanned or sun-kissed look.
  • Mascara, used to enhance the eyelashes.
  • Eye liner and eye shadow, used to color and emphasize the eyelids (larger eyes are a sign of youth).
  • Eyebrow pencils, creams, waxes, and powders are used to fill in and define the brows.
  • Nail polish, used to color the fingernails and toenails.
  • Concealer, a type of thick opaque makeup used to cover pimples, various spots and inconsistencies in the skin.

Also included in the general category of cosmetics are skin care products. These include creams and lotions to moisturize the face and body, sunscreens to protect the skin from damaging UV radiation, and treatment products to repair or hide skin imperfections (acne, wrinkles, dark circles under eyes, etc.). Cosmetics can also be described by the form of the product, as well as the area for application. Cosmetics can be liquid or cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose; dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks.

Extreme cosmetics

Cosmetic contact lenses
Cosmetic contact lenses

In addition to over-the-counter cosmetic products, recent years have seen an increasing market for prescription or surgical cosmetic procedures. These range from temporary enhancements, such as cosmetic coloured contact lenses, to major cosmetic surgery.

Many techniques, such as microdermabrasion and chemical or physical peels, remove the oldest, top layers of skin cells. The younger layers of skin left behind appear more plump, youthful, and soft. Permanent application of pigments (tattooing) is also used cosmetically.

Ingredients

Main article: Ingredients of cosmetics
Broadway actor Jim Brochu applies make-up before the opening night of a play.
Broadway actor Jim Brochu applies make-up before the opening night of a play.
Eye shadow being applied before a wedding
Eye shadow being applied before a wedding

The ingredients of cosmetics come from a variety of sources. Cosmetics often use vibrant colours that have been derived from sources ranging from crushed insects to rust.[citation needed] Modern techniques have allowed manufacturers to produce colours synthetically.

The ingredients used in cosmetics are highly regulated in many countries. The testing of cosmetic products on animals is a subject of some controversy. It is now illegal in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Belgium, and a ban across the European Union is due to come into effect in 2009.

See also

  • Testing cosmetics on animals
  • Body art
  • Cosmeceutical
  • Cosmetic surgery
  • Henna
  • List of cosmetic brands
  • Permanent makeup

Notes

References

  • "Ibn Sina's writing on Beauty"
  • Burckhardt, Titus [1972]. Moorish Culture in Spain (in German). London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-887752-28-5. 

External links

  • Article on history, ingredients and method of manufacture of lipstick
  • The British Library - finding information on the cosmetics and toiletries industry
  • Cosmetics and Your Health
  • List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients (Health Canada)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmetics"

 



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