From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Plastic surgeons)
“Facial reconstruction” redirects here. For the identification of skeletal remains, see Forensic facial reconstruction.
Plastic surgery is a specialty that uses surgical techniques to change the appearance and function of patients' bodies. Some of these operations are called "cosmetic", and others are called "reconstructive".
The word "plastic" derives from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape; its use here is not connected with the synthetic polymer material known as plastic.
The history of plastic surgery reaches back to the ancient world. Physicians in ancient India including Susrutha were utilizing skin grafts for reconstructive work as early as the 8th century BC. His work Sushruta Samhita describes rhinoplasty and otoplasty. This knowledge of plastic surgery existed in India up to the late 18th century as can be seen from the reports published in Gentleman's Magazine (October 1794).
The Romans were able to perform simple techniques such as repairing damaged ears from around the 1st century BC. In mid-15th century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt described a process "to make a new nose for one who lacks it entirely, and the dogs have devoured it" by removing skin from the back of the arm and suturing it in place. However, because of the dangers associated with surgery in any form, especially that involving the head or face, it was not until the 19th and 20th centuries that such surgery became commonplace.
Up until the techniques of anesthesia became established, all surgery on healthy tissues involved great pain. Infection from surgery was reduced once sterile technique and disinfectants were introduced. The invention and use of antibiotics beginning with sulfa drugs and penicillin was another step in making elective surgery possible.
The U.S.'s first plastic surgeon was Dr. John Peter Mettauer. He performed the first cleft palate operation in 1827 with instruments that he designed himself. The New Zealander Sir Harold Gillies developed many of the techniques of modern plastic surgery in caring for those who suffered facial injuries in World War I, he is considered to be the father of modern plastic surgery. His work was expanded upon during World War II by one of his former students and cousin, Archibald McIndoe, who pioneered treatments for RAF aircrew suffering from severe burns. McIndoe's radical, experimental treatments, lead to the formation of the Guinea Pig Club.
Common reconstructive surgerical procedures are: breast reconstruction for women who have had a mastectomy, cleft lip and palate surgery, contracture surgery for burn survivors, and closing skin and mucosa defects after removal of tumors in the head and neck region.
Plastic surgeons have developed the use of microsurgery to transfer tissue for coverage of a defect when no local tissue is available. Tissue flaps comprised of skin, muscle, bone, fat or a combination, may be removed from the body, moved to another site on the body and reconnected to a blood supply by suturing arteries and veins as small as 1-2 mm in diameter.
There is an overlap between reconstructive and cosmetic surgery. Many of the techniques of cosmetic surgery are utilized in reconstructive surgery to improve cosmesis.
Cosmetic surgery is a very popular avenue for personal enhancement, as demonstrated by the 11.9 million cosmetic procedures performed in the U.S. alone in 2004. As for any operation, cosmetic procedures involve risk, and should therefore not be undertaken lightly. Within the US, critics of plastic surgery note that it is legal for any doctor, regardless of speciality, to perform "cosmetic surgery", but not "plastic surgery". It is thus important to distinguish the terms "plastic surgery" and "cosmetic surgery": Plastic Surgery is recognized by the American Board of Medical Specialties (the only official entity overseeing physician certification in the United States) as the subspecialty dedicated to the surgical repair of defects of form or function -- this includes cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery, as well as reconstructive surgery. The term "cosmetic surgery" however, simply refers to surgery that is designed to improve cosmetics, or appearance. In several countries including Australia, many doctors who are not qualified as surgeons also perform cosmetic procedures.
The most prevalent aesthetic/cosmetic procedures are listed below. Most of these types of surgery are more commonly known by their "common names." These are also listed when pertinent.
- Abdominal etching (or "Ab Etching) A trademarked plastic surgery procedure by Dr. Henry Mentz that affords 6-pack style abs or a sculpted stomach or reduction of love handles.
- Abdominoplasty (or "tummy tuck"): reshaping and firming of the abdomen
- Blepharoplasty (or "eyelid surgery"): Reshaping of the eyelids or the application of permanent eyeliner, including Asian blepharoplasty
- Augmentation Mammaplasty/breast augmentation (or "breast enlargement" or "boob job"): Augmentation of the breasts. This can involve either saline or silicone gel prosthetics.
- Buttock Augmentation (or "butt augmentation" or "butt implants"): Enhancement of the buttocks. This procedure can be performed by using silicone implants or fat grafting and transfer from other areas of the body.
- Chemical peel: Minimizing the appearance of acne, pock, and other scars as well as wrinkles (depending on concentration and type of agent used, except for deep furrows), solar lentigines (age spots, freckles), and photodamage in general. Chemical peels commonly involve carbolic acid (Phenol), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), glycolic acid (AHA), or salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent.
- Mastopexy (or "breast lift"): Raising or reshaping of breasts
- Labiaplasty: Surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia
- Rhinoplasty (or "nose job"): Reshaping of the nose
- Otoplasty (or ear surgery): Reshaping of the ear
- Rhytidectomy (or "face lift"): Removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face
- Suction-Assisted Lipectomy (or liposuction): Removal of fat from the body
- Chin augmentation: Augmentation of the chin with an implant (e.g. silicone) or by sliding genioplasty of the jawbone.
- Cheek augmentation
- Collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections (eg hyaluronic acid)
- Vaginoplasty, to reconstruct or create a vagina
Plastic surgery is a broad field, and may be subdivided further. Plastic surgery training and approval by the American Board of Plastic Surgery includes mastery of the following as well:
- Craniofacial surgery mostly revolves around the treatment of pediatric congenital anomalies, such as cleft lip and palate, craniosynostosis, and other disturbances in facial growth and development. Because these children have multiple issues, the best approach to providing care to them is an interdisciplinary approach which includes oral and maxillofacial surgeons, otolaryngologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists and geneticists.
- Hand surgery is a field that is alo practiced by some general surgeons and orthopedic surgeons (see Hand surgeon). Plastic surgeons receive training in hand surgery, with some trainees deciding even to do an additional full-year hand fellowship afterwards (this fellowship can also be pursued by general surgeons and orthopedic surgeons). In particular, plastic surgeons receive training in microvascular surgery, which is needed to replant an amputated hand or digit. Many hand operations (such as reconstruction of injuries, replantations, rheumatoid surgery and surgery of congenital defects) are performed by plastic surgeons.
- Maxillofacial surgery is surgery of the "maxilla" (which means jaw) and face, and is an important aspect of plastic surgery. This field grew from contributions by both the plastic surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Examples of repairs here would be traumatic fractures of the jaw and face (such as from fights or vehicle accidents), tumors of the jaw and face.
Addiction to cosmetic surgery
Some people appear to become addicted to cosmetic surgery, possibly because of body dysmorphic disorder. Sufficient amounts of repeated cosmetic surgery can lead to irreversible damage to the normal body structure. However, due to the high cost of repeated cosmetic surgery, this disorder is generally one limited to the wealthy. However, others have been known to take out loans for repeat procedures. Some insurance policies cover part or all of reconstructive procedures while the cosmetic procedures are often not covered by insurance. The only way to know for certain is to review the policy to see what is covered and what is not.
South Korea is known for the high prevalence of plastic surgery in its population. One conservative estimate puts at least 50% of South Korean women in their twenties have some form of plastic surgery.
- Body modification
- Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Breast implant, Breast lift
- Facial feminization surgery
- Operation Smile
- Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
- Orthopedic Surgery
- Dr. 90210
- Extreme Makeover
- See Category:Plastic surgeons
- ^ Johnson D, Whitworth I (2002). "Recent developments in plastic surgery.". BMJ 325 (7359): 319-22. PMID 12169510.
- ^ Rana RE, Arora BS (Jan-Mar 2002). "History of plastic surgery in India.". J Postgrad Med (India) 48 (1): 76-8. PMID 12082339. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
- ^ Paul O'Keeffe. Rhinoplasty Overview. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
- ^ Anderson, Laurence (2006). Looking Good, the Australian guide to skin care, cosmetic medicine and cosmetic surgery. Sydney: AMPCo. ISBN 0-85557-044-X..
- ^ Charles Scanlon. The price of beauty in South Korea. BBC News. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
- Fraser, Suzanne (2003). Cosmetic surgery, gender and culture. Palgrave. ISBN 1-4039-1299-8.
- Gilman, Sander (2005). Creating Beauty to Cure the Soul: Race and Psychology in the Shaping of Aesthetic Surgery. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2144-0.
- Haiken, Elizabeth (1997). Venus Envy: A History of Cosmetic Surgery. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-5763-5.
- The American Society of Plastic Surgeons
- The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
- The American Board of Plastic Surgery
- Emedicine's History of Plastic Surgery entry
Categories: Cleanup from December 2006 | All pages needing cleanup | Articles lacking sources from January 2007 | All articles lacking sources | Plastic surgery | Surgical specialties | Human appearance