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ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Academy Award for Makeup
  2. Aloe
  3. Alpha hydroxy acid
  4. Anti-aging cream
  5. Arenation
  6. Aromatherapy
  7. Artistry
  8. Astringent
  9. Beauty
  10. Beauty mark
  11. Beauty salon
  12. Camouflage Cosmetic
  13. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics
  14. Carnauba wax
  15. Castor oil
  16. Chanel No. 5
  17. Chemical peel
  18. Christian Dior
  19. Clinique
  20. Concealer
  21. Corpse paint
  22. Cosmeceutical
  23. Cosmetic advertising
  24. Cosmetics
  25. Cosmetology
  26. Creed
  27. Dermabrasion
  28. Dermatology
  29. Destination spa
  30. Eau de cologne
  31. Electrology
  32. Elizabeth Arden
  33. Essential oil
  34. Estée Lauder
  35. Estée Lauder Companies
  36. Estée Lauder pleasures
  37. Exfoliation
  38. Eye liner
  39. Eyeshadow
  40. Facial toning
  41. Glitter
  42. Glycerol
  43. Guerlain
  44. Hair
  45. Hair extension
  46. Helena Rubinstein
  47. Hermès
  48. History of cosmetics
  49. History of Perfume
  50. Hot tub
  51. INCI
  52. Jojoba oil
  53. Kohl
  54. Lancome
  55. Lip gloss
  56. Lip plumper
  57. Lipstick
  58. List of cosmetic ingredients
  59. L'Oréal
  60. Makeover
  61. Make-up artist
  62. Manicure
  63. Mascara
  64. Max Factor
  65. Max Factor, Sr.
  66. Maybelline
  67. Microdermabrasion
  68. Nail polish
  69. Natural skin care
  70. Noxzema
  71. Olay
  72. Pedicure
  73. Perfume
  74. Perfume bottles
  75. Permanent makeup
  76. Permanent wave
  77. Plastic surgeons
  78. Retinol
  79. Revlon
  80. Rimmel
  81. Rouge
  82. Shampoo
  83. Shaving
  84. Shaving cream
  85. Shea butter
  86. Shiseido
  87. Shower gel
  88. Skin Deep
  89. Skin whitening
  90. Soap
  91. Sunless tanning
  92. Sun tanning
  93. Surfactant
  94. Talcum powder
  95. Tanning bed
  96. Tanning lamp
  97. Thanaka
  98. The Body Shop
  99. Waxing
  100. Wella
  101. What Not to Wear

 

 



COSMETICS
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cosmetics

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

History of cosmetics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years of human history, and almost every society on earth.

The ancient world

The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Ancient Egypt around 4000 BC.[citation needed] The Ancient Greeks and Romans also used cosmetics.[citation needed] The Romans and Ancient Egyptians, not realizing their dangerous properties, used cosmetics containing mercury and white lead.[citation needed] Fragrances, particularly frankincense and myrrh are mentioned in the judeo-christian bible: Exodus 30: 34, Gospel of Matthew 2:11.

Africa

The cosmetic uses of kohl and henna have their roots in north Africa.[citation needed]

The Middle East

Cosmetics were used in Persia and what is today the Middle East from ancient periods.[citation needed] After Arab tribes converted to Islam and conquered those areas, in some areas cosmetics were only restricted if they were to disguise the real look in order to mislead or cause uncontrolled desire.[citation needed] All branches of Islam set a number of rules of thumb relating to purity and cleanliness, whether in its physical or spiritual form.[citation needed] For some branches, the general rule is outlined by the Quran: “For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean” (2:222). Muhammad also declared: "Allah is Beautiful and He loves beauty."[citation needed] On the other hand, some fundamentalist branches of Islam forbid the use of cosmetics. The Taliban, for example, would beat or kill women found to be wearing cosmetics.[citation needed]

An early cosmetologist was the physician Abu’al-Qassim al-Zahrawi, or Abulcassis (936-1013 AD), who wrote medical encyclopedia Al-Tasreef, in 30 volumes. Chapter 19 was devoted to cosmetics. As the treatise was translated into Latin, the cosmetic chapter was used in the West. Al-Zahrawi considered cosmetics a branch of medicine, which he called Medicine of Beauty (Adwiyat al-Zinah). He deals with perfumes, scented aromatics and incense. There were perfumed stocks rolled and pressed in special moulds, perhaps the earliest antecedents of present day lipsticks and solid deodorants. He used oily substances called Adhan for medication and beautification.[citation needed]

South Asia

Henna has been used in India since around the 4th or 5th centuries.[citation needed] It is used either as a hair dye, or in the art of mehndi, in which complex designs are painted on to the hands and feet, especially before a Hindu wedding.[citation needed] Henna is also used in some north African cultures. African henna designs tend to be bolder, and Indian designs more complex.[citation needed]

The use of kohl or kajal has a long history in Hindu culture.[citation needed] The use of traditional preparations of kohl on children and adults has been considered to have health benefits,[citation needed] though in the United States it has been linked to lead poisoning and is prohibited.[1]

China

Chinese people began to stain their fingernails with gum arabic, gelatin, beeswax and egg from around 3000 BCE.[citation needed] The colors used represented social class: Chou dynasty royals wore gold and silver; later royals wore black or red. The lower classes were forbidden to wear bright colors on their nails.[citation needed]

Japan

A maiko in the Gion district of Kyoto, Japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new.
A maiko in the Gion district of Kyoto, Japan, in full make-up. The style of the lipstick indicates that she is still new.

In Japan, geishas wore lipstick made of crushed safflower petals to paint the eyebrows and edges of the eyes as well as the lips.[citation needed] Sticks of bintsuke wax, a softer version of the sumo wrestlers' hair wax, were used by geisha as a makeup base.[citation needed] Rice powder colors the face and back; rouge contours the eye socket and defines the nose.[citation needed] Ohaguro (black paint) colours the teeth for the ceremony when maiko (apprentice geisha) graduate and become independent.[citation needed]

Europe

1889 painting Woman at her Toilette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
1889 painting Woman at her Toilette by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

In the Middle Ages, Renaissance and up until the Industrial Revolution, the lower classes had to work outside, in agricultural jobs. The typically light-colored European skin was darkened by exposure to the sun. The higher class a person was, the more leisure time he or she had to spend indoors, which kept the skin pale. Thus, the highest classed of European society, able to spend all of their time protected from the sun, frequently had the lightest-looking skin. As a result, European men and women often attempted to lighten their skin directly, or used white powder on their skin to look more aristocratic.[citation needed] A variety of products were used, including white lead paint which, as if the toxic lead wasn't bad enough, notoriously also contained arsenic.[citation needed] Queen Elizabeth I of England was one well-known user of white lead, with which she created a look known as "the Mask of Youth".[citation needed] Portraits of the queen by Nicholas Hilliard from later in her reign are illustrative of her influential style.[citation needed]

The Americas

Some Native American tribes painted their faces for ceremonial events or battle.[citation needed]

The 20th century

During the early years of the 20th century, make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt.[citation needed] But the most influential new development of all was that of the movie industry in Hollywood. Among those who saw the opportunity for mass-market cosmetics were Max Factor, Sr., Elizabeth Arden, and Helena Rubinstein.[citation needed] Modern synthetic hair dye was invented in 1907 by Eugene Schueller, founder of L'Oréal. He also invented sunscreen in 1936.[citation needed]

After the First World War, the flapper look came into fashion for the first time, and with it came cosmetics: dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel.[citation needed] Previously, suntans had only been sported by agricultural workers, while fashionable women kept their skins as pale as possible. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new fake tan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look.[citation needed] In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.[citation needed]

Cosmetic deodorant was invented in 1888, by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia,[citation needed] and was trademarked under the name Mumm. Roll-on deodorant was launched in 1952, and aerosol deodorant in 1965.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ FDA warning against the use of kohl and related products

See also

  • Cosmetics
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_cosmetics"
 

 



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