From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- For the city in Algeria, see Mascara, Algeria.
Mascara tube and wand applicator
Mascara is a cosmetic used to darken, thicken and define eyelashes. Mascara comes in three forms: liquid, cake and cream. It also comes in many formulas, tints and colors. The general purpose of mascara is to emphasize, thicken, lengthen, and define lashes. Mascara is available with tube and wand applicators. Ingredients in mascara include water, wax thickeners, film-formers and preservatives. Mascara brushes can be straight or curved, to curl eye lashes, with fine or thick bristles. Some mascara wands contain rayon or nylon fibers to lengthen eyelashes.
The first mascara product was invented by Eugene Rimmel in the 19th century. The word "rimmel" still means "mascara" in several languages, including French and Italian.
The word mascara derives from the Italian maschera, which means "mask". Modern mascara was created in 1913 by a chemist named T. L. Williams for his sister, Mabel. This early mascara was made from coal dust mixed with Vaseline petroleum jelly. The product was a success with Mabel, and Williams began to sell his new product through the mail. His company Maybelline, a combination of his sister's name and Vaseline, eventually became a leading cosmetics company.
Mascara was available only in cake form, and was composed of colorants and carnauba wax. Users wet a brush and rubbed it over the cake, then applied it to the eyes. The modern tube and wand applicator did not appear until 1957, when it was introduced by and founded by Helena Rubinstein.
This woman's eye has had mascara applied to the lashes
Mascara may be used on all eyelashes, from inner to outer corners. The mascara wand is dipped into a clean tube of mascara, applied close to the base of the lashes and worked out to the tips. They have made new mascara wands that are of plastic and can be cleaned. Mascara can be applied to the top eyelashes for a 'heavy-lidded' look, or to the bottom lashes to widen the eyes. It is usually applied to curled lashes and may be preceded by a lash primer. The moisture in some mascaras and primers can cause lashes to uncurl during application, which is easily solved by using a drier, waterproof mascara. Waterproof mascara is popular for this purpose, as well as its tendency to 'clump' less; however, it is more difficult to remove.
Mascara that contains nylon fibers can give lashes a fuller and longer appearance because it clings to the lashes like mini extensions. Pro-vitamin B5 in mascara acts as a conditioner for lashes, giving them a softer and more natural feel.
- ^ Oxford dictionary definition and etymology
- Vincent J-R Kehoe, The Technique of the Professional Make-Up Artist, ISBN 0-240-80217-9
- Gustafson, John. "Handbag.com: Beauty"
- Calandra, Alice. "Eye Makeup Application Technique"
Categories: Cosmetics | History of cosmetics | English words and phrases of foreign origin