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WIKIBOOKS
DISPONIBILI
?????????

ART
- Great Painters
BUSINESS&LAW
- Accounting
- Fundamentals of Law
- Marketing
- Shorthand
CARS
- Concept Cars
GAMES&SPORT
- Videogames
- The World of Sports

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
- Blogs
- Free Software
- Google
- My Computer

- PHP Language and Applications
- Wikipedia
- Windows Vista

EDUCATION
- Education
LITERATURE
- Masterpieces of English Literature
LINGUISTICS
- American English

- English Dictionaries
- The English Language

MEDICINE
- Medical Emergencies
- The Theory of Memory
MUSIC&DANCE
- The Beatles
- Dances
- Microphones
- Musical Notation
- Music Instruments
SCIENCE
- Batteries
- Nanotechnology
LIFESTYLE
- Cosmetics
- Diets
- Vegetarianism and Veganism
TRADITIONS
- Christmas Traditions
NATURE
- Animals

- Fruits And Vegetables



ARTICLES IN THE BOOK

  1. Adverbial
  2. Agentive ending
  3. Ain't
  4. American and British English differences
  5. American and British English pronunciation differences
  6. American and British English spelling differences
  7. American English
  8. Amn't
  9. Anglophone
  10. Anglosphere
  11. Apostrophe
  12. Australian English
  13. Benjamin Franklin's phonetic alphabet
  14. Bracket
  15. British and American keyboards
  16. British English
  17. Canadian English
  18. Certificate of Proficiency in English
  19. Classical compound
  20. Cockney
  21. Colon
  22. Comma
  23. Comma splice
  24. Cut Spelling
  25. Dangling modifier
  26. Dash
  27. Definite article reduction
  28. Disputed English grammar
  29. Don't-leveling
  30. Double copula
  31. Double negative
  32. Ellipsis
  33. English alphabet
  34. English compound
  35. English declension
  36. English English
  37. English grammar
  38. English honorifics
  39. English irregular verbs
  40. English language learning and teaching
  41. English modal auxiliary verb
  42. English orthography
  43. English passive voice
  44. English personal pronouns
  45. English phonology
  46. English plural
  47. English relative clauses
  48. English spelling reform
  49. English verbs
  50. English words with uncommon properties
  51. Estuary English
  52. Exclamation mark
  53. Foreign language influences in English
  54. Full stop
  55. Generic you
  56. Germanic strong verb
  57. Gerund
  58. Going-to future
  59. Grammatical tense
  60. Great Vowel Shift
  61. Guillemets
  62. Habitual be
  63. History of linguistic prescription in English
  64. History of the English language
  65. Hyphen
  66. I before e except after c
  67. IELTS
  68. Initial-stress-derived noun
  69. International Phonetic Alphabet for English
  70. Interpunct
  71. IPA chart for English
  72. It's me
  73. Languages of the United Kingdom
  74. Like
  75. List of animal adjectives
  76. List of British idioms
  77. List of British words not widely used in the United States
  78. List of case-sensitive English words
  79. List of commonly confused homonyms
  80. List of common misspellings in English
  81. List of common words that have two opposite senses
  82. List of dialects of the English language
  83. List of English apocopations
  84. List of English auxiliary verbs
  85. List of English homographs
  86. List of English irregular verbs
  87. List of English prepositions
  88. List of English suffixes
  89. List of English words invented by Shakespeare
  90. List of English words of Celtic origin
  91. List of English words of Italian origin
  92. List of English words with disputed usage
  93. List of frequently misused English words
  94. List of Fumblerules
  95. List of homophones
  96. List of -meters
  97. List of names in English with non-intuitive pronunciations
  98. List of words having different meanings in British and American English
  99. List of words of disputed pronunciation
  100. London slang
  101. Longest word in English
  102. Middle English
  103. Modern English
  104. Names of numbers in English
  105. New Zealand English
  106. Northern subject rule
  107. Not!
  108. NuEnglish
  109. Oxford spelling
  110. Personal pronoun
  111. Phonological history of the English language
  112. Phrasal verb
  113. Plural of virus
  114. Possessive adjective
  115. Possessive antecedent
  116. Possessive me
  117. Possessive of Jesus
  118. Possessive pronoun
  119. Preposition stranding
  120. Pronunciation of English th
  121. Proper adjective
  122. Question mark
  123. Quotation mark
  124. Received Pronunciation
  125. Regional accents of English speakers
  126. Rhyming slang
  127. Run-on sentence
  128. Scouse
  129. Semicolon
  130. Semordnilap
  131. Serial comma
  132. Shall and will
  133. Silent E
  134. Singular they
  135. Slash
  136. SoundSpel
  137. Space
  138. Spelling reform
  139. Split infinitive
  140. Subjective me
  141. Suffix morpheme
  142. Tag question
  143. Than
  144. The Reverend
  145. Third person agreement leveling
  146. Thou
  147. TOEFL
  148. TOEIC
  149. Truespel
  150. University of Cambridge ESOL examination
  151. Weak form and strong form
  152. Welsh English
  153. Who
  154. You

 

 
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THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
This article is from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_alphabet

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_the_GNU_Free_Documentation_License 

English alphabet

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

The modern English alphabet consists of the 26 letters[1] of the Latin alphabet:

Old English

The English language has been written using the Latin alphabet from ca. the 7th century. Since the 5th century, the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc had been used, and both alphabets continued to be used in parallel for some time. Futhorc influenced the Latin alphabet by providing it with the letters thorn ž and wynn ƿ. The letter eth š was later devised as a modification of d, and finally yogh ȝ was created by Norman scribes from the insular g used in Old English and Irish and used alongside their Carolingian g. Additionally, the ligatures double-u w for vv, ęsh ę for ae, and œthel œ for oe were in use.

In the year 1011, a writer named Byrhtferš ordered the Old English alphabet for numerological purposes.[2] He listed the 24 letters of the Latin alphabet (including ampersand) first, then 5 additional English letters, starting with the Tironian nota or ond, , which was a specifically English symbol for and:

A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T V X Y Z & ⁊ Ƿ Ž Š Ę

Modern English

In Modern English orthography, ž, ȝ, š, and ƿ are obsolete, although ž continued its existence for some time, its lower case form gradually becoming graphically indistinguishable from the minuscule y in most handwritings. On the other hand, u and j were introduced as distinct from v and i in the 16th century, and w assumed the status of an independent letter, so that the English alphabet is now considered to consist of the following 26 letters:

Unfortunately, these common names for the letters are often hard to distinguish from each other when heard. The NATO phonetic alphabet gives each letter a name specifically designed to sound different from any other. Therefore, aircraft pilots and many other people use the NATO phonetic alphabet names instead of these common names.

The apostrophe is also used to write English and is part of many English words, but is not considered part of the alphabet.

Notes

Phonology

The letters A, E, I, O, U are vowels; and sometimes Y (and very rarely W) functions as a vowel too, but more often they are semivowels. The remaining letters are consonants. The letter most frequently used in English is E. The least frequently used letters are Q, X, and Z. The list below shows how often each letter is used:

A - Common
B - Mildly Common
C - Common
D - Mildly Frequent
E - Frequent
F - Mildly Common
G - Common
H - Mildly Common
I - Common
J - Mildly Rare
K - Mildly Rare
L - Mildly Frequent
M - Common
N - Frequent
O - Common
P - Common
Q - Rare
R - Frequent
S - Frequent
T - Frequent
U - Mildly Common
V - Mildly Rare
W - Mildly Rare
X - Very Rare
Y - Mildly Rare
Z - Rare
 

Letter names

The names of the letters are rarely spelled out, except in compound words like tee-shirt, deejay, emcee, okay, aitch-less, wye-level, etc., and derived forms like exed out, effing, to eff and blind. The forms listed here are from the Oxford English Dictionary: vowels stand for themselves, and consonants are C+ee or e+C, with the exceptions of aitch (haitch), jay, kay, cue, ar, ess (es-), wy (wye), zed. The plural forms of the vowels are a's or aes, e's, i's, o's or oes, u's.

Apostrophe

The apostrophe, while not considered part of the English alphabet, is used to write English words. A few pairs of words, such as its and it's, were and we're, and shed and she'd are distinguished in writing only by the presence or absence of an apostrophe. It also distinguishes the possessive endings -'s and -s' from the common plural ending -s.

Diacritics

Diacritic marks are not common in English, appearing mainly in foreign and loan-words such as résumé, naļve, and faēade. Often such use of diacritics is optional but in some words such as "soupēon" the only spelling found in English dictionaries (the OED and others) uses the diacritic. Occasionally, especially in older writing, diacritics are used to indicate the syllables of a word: cursed (adjective) is pronounced with one syllable, while cursčd (verb) is pronounced with two. Similarly, there's a chicken coop, where the two vowel letters represent a single vowel sound (a digraph), versus cooperate (from 1604), co-operate (from 1762), or coöperate (from 1876), where they represent two. These distinctions are, however, optional, and often unused even where they would serve to alleviate some degree of confusion. See also Written accents in English.

Ligatures

The Roman ligatures Ę and Œ are still used in formal writing for certain words of Greek or Latin origin, such as "encyclopędia" and "cœlom". Lack of awareness combined with technological limitations (the QWERTY-format keyboard commonly used in typography does not have keys representing either ligature) has made it common to see these two letters displayed as "ae" and "oe" respectively in modern, non-academic usage. These ligatures are not used in American English (and related variants), and, for the most part, a lone "e" has supplanted both "ae" (as in the aforementioned spelling "encyclopedia") and "oe" (e.g., "fetus" instead of "foetus.")

In Old English, Ę was adopted as a letter on its own and called ęsc ("ash"), and in very early Old English Œ also appeared as a distinct letter named œšel ("ethel"), both after Futhorc runes.

Other Old English letters (also used in Middle English and modern Icelandic) are Ž (thorn) and Š (eth), both now th with the exception of being y in a few archaisms like Ye Olde Booke Shoppe.

The variant lower-case form ſ (long s) lasted into early modern English, and was used in non-final position up to the early nineteenth century.

The ampersand (&, &) has sometimes appeared at the end of the English alphabet as with Byrhtferš's list of letters in 1011.[2] The figure is properly speaking a ligature for the letters Et. In English it is used to represent the word and and occasionally the Latin word et, as in the abbreviation &c (et cetera).

See also

  • Alphabet
  • ASCII
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc
  • English language
  • History of the English language
  • Alphabets derived from the Latin

Footnotes

  1. ^ See also the section on Ligatures
  2. ^ a b Michael Everson, Evertype, Baldur Siguršsson, Ķslensk Mįlstöš ON THE STATUS OF THE LATIN LETTER ŽORN AND OF ITS SORTING ORDER
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_alphabet"